Common Sport Injury Guide
Where, Why and what you need to do
Runners Knee/knee pain!
Achilles’ tendon connects the two major calf muscles to the back of your heel. Under too much stress it tightens and becomes irritated!! Accounting for an estimated 11 % of running injuries.
Are you at risk?
Patellofemoral pain syndrome PFPS irritation of the cartilage on the
underside of the patella (kneecap).
40% of running injuries are knee related. PFPS flares up during or after long runs,
after extended periods seated or using stairs.
Also adopting incorrect posture and movement while performing squats etc.
Iliotibial Band Syndrome (ITBS)
The IT band runs from hip-to-knee along the outside of your thigh
and when you run, your knee flexes and extends,
which causes it to rub on the side of your femur and causes irritation
accounts for 12% of running injuries.
Symptoms of ITB syndrome consist of pain on the outside of the knee, more
specifically at or around the lateral epicondyle of the femur or bony bit
on the outside of the knee.
It comes on at a certain time into a run and gradually gets worse until
you must STOP.
After a period of rest the pain may go only to return when running starts again.
Pain is normally aggravated by running, particularly downhill.
Pain may be felt when bending and straightening the knee which may
be made worse by pressing in at the side of the knee over the sore part.
There might be tightness in the ITB which runs down the outside of the thigh.
Can you run through it?
Consider this! Each step we take our feet absorb a force up to 5 times
our body weight. Around 15 % running related injuries
strike the foot. A common condition experienced by runner’s
planta fasciitis which are micro tears or inflammation of the tendons or ligaments
that run from heel to toes becomes painful and you need to STOP running!
Symptoms of the plantar fasciitis include a gradual onset of pain under the heel
which may radiate into the foot. Tenderness is usually felt under and on the inside
of the heel which is initially worse first in the morning but eases as the foot warms up
only to return later in the day or after exercise.
Stretching the plantar fascia may be painful. The Plantar Fascia is a broad, thick band
of tissue that runs from under the heel to the front of the foot.
Through overuse the fascia can become inflamed and painful at its attachment to the
The condition is traditionally thought to be inflammation; however, this is now believed
to be incorrect due to the absence of inflammatory cells within the fascia.
The cause of pain is thought to be degeneration of the collagen fibres
close to the attachment to the heel bone. Plantar fasciitis is common in sports which
involve running, dancing, or jumping. Runners who over-pronate where their feet
roll in or flatten too much are particularly at risk the plantar fascia
is over stretched as the foot flattens.
Are you at Risk!
Shin pain is another common complaint among runners and triathletes
particularly distance runners. The term “shin splints” is widely used but it’s
a non-descript reference regarding leg pain. As there are several multiple causes
of lower leg shin pain “shin splints” are not precise enough.
Technically shin splints refers to medial tibial stress syndrome caused by
tears in the muscles around the shin and accounts
for 15% of running related injuries.
If you have it there will be aching and throbbing pain down the inside of
your shins that really flares up when you run mostly. You may also have some
swelling and redness and pain felt when you point toes downwards.
If the pain at shin area is more than unbearable on touch
you should contact your doctor to rule out a potential stress fracture.
Are you at Risk?
Your Hamstring aids foot placement, bends your knees, extend your legs, drives
you up hills and provide that extra power as you kick towards the finish line.
When they are tight or weak to perform you will really feel it.
One of the essential reasons to carry out good quality warm up before
any race or match “the shorter the distance the longer the warm-up”.
Are you at risk?
If you have pulled it!
Within the first 24 hour to apply; Rest ICE Compression Elevation - to the area
of injury this will reduce bleeding and bruising and potentially
aid a quicker recovery
Stress fractures result and develop from cumulative strain on the bone.
If you have been unlikely to experience one you know it can be very serious.
The most common stress fracture areas for runners include the shin
(tibia) feet (metatarsals) or heel (calcaneus).
Are you at risk?
Are you overtraining?
Are you tired?
Are you pushing the pace?
Strain or tear to either gastrocnemius or the soleus muscles which
together make up the calf muscles. Symptoms include a sudden sharp pain
at the back of the lower leg. A calf strain can range in severity from
mild where you can continue exercise although in some discomfort
right up to a full tear of the muscle resulting in lots of pain and
in ability to walk. Calf injuries usually occur through a sudden pushing off
force or an over stretching of the calf muscles such as in jumping or
changing direction quickly.
other causes include overuse, training while tired, hill running, track running
especially (speed work), incorrectly fitted running
shoes or worn-out running shoes.
A minor tear with up to 10% of the muscle fibres effected.
You will feel a twinge of pain in the back of the lower leg.
It may be possible to carry on running, playing in mild discomfort.
There is likely to be tightness and aching in the
calf muscles two to five days after injury.
Grade 2 symptoms will be more severe than a grade one with
up to 90% of the muscle fibres torn. A sharp pain at the back of the
lower leg will be felt with significant pain walking. There is likely to be
swelling in the calf muscle with mild to moderate bruising.
Pain will be felt on resisted plantar flexion or pushing the foot
downwards against resistance.
There may be tightness and aching in the calf muscle for up
to 10 days or even more.
There will be severe immediate pain at the back of the lower leg.
You will be unable to continue and unable to walk. There will be
considerable bruising and swelling appearing and the muscle will
not contract. In the case of a full rupture, often there is deformity where
the muscle can be seen to be bunched up towards the
top of the calf. A grade three is a rupture of the
muscle and loss of function several months may be required to restore to activity.
Stretching & Movement
A mixture of head to toe simple slow & controlled
movements and stretches as part of
a regular routine after any exercise can help reduce the
risk of injury and help improve performance.
Investing in a stability ball, resistance bands, or why
not try Yoga!
find out more.....contact Campbell and keep moving